Biology and Medical Sciences
in India's History
Many claims are made about the development of medical and biological sciences in ancient India. Here is an emerging list of some sources where one may find well-researched information on various aspects. Please feel free to send us more of relevant resources and links if they are not listed here. Also, please report if you find a broken link:
- Sushruta: The first Plastic Surgeon in 600 B.C., by S Saraf, R Parihar.
- India’s Scientific and Metaphysical Views of Medicine in Objects, Claire Voon
- The Medical Profession in Ancient India, Patrick Olivelle, Lecture for CSDS. (youtube)
- Biology in ancient and medieval India, R.N.Kapil, Deptt of Botany, Delhi.
- The growth of Greco-Arabian medicine in medieval India, R.L.Verma.
- Indo-Muslim Physicians, Fabrizio Speziale. Encyclopaedia Iranica.
- Guide to Indo-Persian Medical Text 1864, University of Chicago Library, 2008.
- The Circulation of Ayurvedic knowledge in Indo-Persian Medical Literature. Fabrizio Speziale.
- Ayurveda in Post-Classical and Pre-Colonial India.
- Folk-Medicine in Ancient India (Nature).
- The precise method of cow slaughter in the Indus Valley Civilisation, Sanjeev Sabhlok.
- Asceticism and Healing in Ancient India: Medicine in the Buddhist Monastery, Kenneth G. Zysk.
- Agriculture Science in Mughal Period & its Socio-Economic Impact, Mrs. Tanuja Kumari, International Journal of Humanities and Applied Science
- Mughal Gardens and Geographic Sciences, Then and Now. by Wescoat, James L., Jr. 1997. In Gardens in the Time of the Great Muslim Empires: Theory and Design, edited by Attilio Petruccioli, 187-202. Leiden; New York: E.J. Brill.
- Medical Techniques and Practices in Mughal India, S.A.Nadeem Rezavi, History of Technology in India Vol. II, Editor Harbans Mukhia.
- Agrarian system of Mughal India (1556-1707), Irfan Habib.
- Hakim Abdul Hameed. 1990. Exchanges between India and Central Asia in the Field of Medicine Especially During the Mughal Period. In Interaction between Indian and Central Asian Science and Technology in Mediaeval Times (Eds.) W.H. Abdi et al. Vol. II. New Delhi: INSA.
- Ancient and Mediaeval Biology, Looking through the Magnifying Glass of the Modern, Pushpa M Bhargava and Chandana Chakrabarti (Prakriti, The Nature of Matter) Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts, Kalakosa)
- History of Indian Medicine, Prof. K.E.Carr (quatr.us) - a popular article
- History of Indian healing traditions (National Centre for Biological Sciences)
- Were ancient Indian rishis the earliest biologists? - Indian Institute of Sciences
- Indian scientists seek to prove genetic basis of Ayurvedic Prakriti, Nikita Mehta, Live Mint
- Sushruta: The first Plastic Surgeon in 600 B.C. (S.Saraf, R.Parihar)
- An interpretation of ancient Hindu medicine, Chandra Chakraberty, 1923
- Cell Theory has roots in ancient Indian texts, Chethan Kumar, Bangalore, Deccan Herald
- Biology in ancient and medieval India, R.N.Kapil, Botany Deptt., Delhi.
- Biological concepts and agriculture in ancient India, Vishnu-Mittre, Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany, Lucknow
- The Vimana Sthana of the Charaka Samhita as a Knowledge and Measurement Unit,
Vaibhav Dadu, Anchor Academic Publishing
- A Summary of the Late D. Chattopadhyaya's Critique of Charaka Samhita, by Lalit Tiwari
- Ancient Indian Biological Thought: Need of a Scientific and Prudent Approach, P.P.Joglekar
- Medical Culture in Transition: Mughal Gentleman Physician and the Native Doctor in Early Colonial India, Seema Alavi, Modern Asian Studies
- The Mughal Painters of Natural History, Wilfrid Blunt, The Burlington Magazine
- “Tandrusti Deen ka Kaam Hai”: Health as a Matter of Religion in Book 9 of Ashraf Ali Thanvi’s Bahishti Zewar, Usamah Yasin Ansari, History of Religions
- The "Globalization" of Disease? India and the Plague, I. J. Catanach, Journal of World History
- The Antiquity Of Vaccination In India, The British Medical Journal
- Hindu Medical Practice in Sixteenth-Century Western India: Evidence from Portuguese Sources,
M. N. PEARSON, Portuguese Studies
- The Thin End of the Wedge. Medical Relativities as a Paradigm of Early Modern Indian-European Relations, M. N. Pearson, Modern Asian Studies
- Rethinking the History of Medicine in Asia: Hakim Mohammed Said and the Society for the Promotion of Eastern Medicine, Joseph S. Alter, The Journal of Asian Studies
- Interpreting the Image of the Human Body in Premodern India, Dominik Wujastyk
International Journal of Hindu Studies
- Public Policy and Ayurveda: Modernising a Great Tradition, Madhulika Banerjee
Economic and Political Weekly
- Breathing in India, c. 1890, Nile Green, Modern Asian Studies
- Some Dynamics of Indo-Tibetan Trade through Uttarākhaṇḍa (Kumaon-Garhwal), India, Maheshwar P. Joshi and C. W. Brown, Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient
This list is in progress. Please let us know if you know of some good Oral history archive on the Internet which concerns us and we may have missed. Please report if you find any dead links.